Sub-project 1 focuses on the use and perception of slurs, dehumanising metaphors and metonyms in Danish and German. The mechanisms by which they denigrate and evaluate, however, can be subtle, even though the expressions themselves might be viewed as examples of more obvious hate speech. The sub-project aims are

a) to identify the expressions used along with their frequency, collocations and contexts;

b) to categorize the linguistic and pragmatic characteristics of the expressions to identify their derogatory and evaluative content and how this content is conveyed;

c) to examine attitudes of target and non-target groups towards such expressions;

d) to delineate the different parameters, or prototypical features, included in popular understandings of the concept of hate speech.